Microbiology is the science of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, yeast-like fungi and molds), which is a broad and extremely rapidly developing field of science. Microorganisms have been identified in all environments, i.e. soil, water and living organisms. Learning about the interaction of microorganisms with the surrounding environment plays an important role in the prevention of bacterial infections of humans and animals, environmental protection and the development of numerous industries.
Due to the number of species, bacteria are the most diverse group of microorganisms. They are unicellular prokaryotic organisms that lack a cell nucleus. The protein-lipid cell membrane and cell wall give the bacterial cell its characteristic shape, which is a feature of individual bacterial species ( e.g. cylindrical, spiral, spherical).
Microbiological tests are commonly used laboratory tests to detect and identify microorganisms in blood, urine, saliva, sputum or swabs from the throat, nose, ear, oral mucosa. They are performed in specialized microbiology laboratories .
The world of bacteria has been of interest to numerous scientists for many years. The research being carried out is mainly concerned with the growth rate of bacteria on diverse culture media. Bacterial growth is a complex process that involves numerous catabolic and anabolic reactions that cause the bacterial cell to divide .